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                蠶絲的制作過程

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                作者:admin   時間:2016-12-30 02-10-20

                  

                1.蠶卵

                Silkworms:

                蠶以卵繁殖。蠶卵由蠶卵看上去很像細粒芝麻,寬約1毫米,厚約0.5毫米。一只雌蛾大約可產450~500粒蠶卵,重約1克。蠶卵剛產下時為淡黃色或黃色,經1~2天變為赤豆色,再經3~4天后又變為灰綠色或紫色,便不再發生變化,稱為固定色。蠶卵外層是堅硬的卵殼,里面是卵黃與漿膜,受精卵中的胚胎在發育過程中不斷攝取營養,逐漸發育成蟻蠶,它從卵殼中爬出來,卵殼空了之后變成白色或淡黃色。

                Silkworms breed by eggs, which look like grains of sesame and are 1 mm wide, 0.5 mm thick. A female moth can produce about 450-500 grains of silkworm eggs, weighing about 1 g. When they are just laid, they are light yellow or yellow eggs. They turn into red-bean color after 1-2 days and then become sage green or purple through 3-4 days later. From then on, their color no longer changes, known as the fixed color. Silkworm eggs have outer hard shells, with egg yolk and serous in it. Zygote embryo continuously absorbs nutrition in the process of growth, gradually developing into newly-hatched silkworms, and then climb out from the egg shell. The egg shells are white or light yellow when empty.

                2.蟻蠶-熟蠶

                Newly-hatched silkworms-matured silkworms

                蟻蠶:蠶從蠶卵中孵化出來時,身體的顏色是褐色或赤褐色的,極細小,且多細毛,樣子有點象螞蟻,所以叫蟻蠶。蟻蠶長約2毫米,體寬約0.5毫米,它從卵殼中爬出來后,經過2-3小時就會進食桑葉。

                蟻蠶-熟蠶:蠶寶寶食桑量極大,因此,長得很快,體色也逐漸變淡。有時它的食欲逐漸地有所減退乃至完全禁食,它吐出少量的絲,將腹足固定在蠶座上,頭胸部昂起,不再運動,好像睡著了一樣,稱作“眠”。眠中的蠶,外表看似靜止不動,體內卻進行著脫皮的準備,這又稱齡期,表示蠶寶寶處于某一個發育階段。從蟻蠶到第一次蛻皮為第一齡;眠起后進入第二齡;再次蛻皮后進入第三齡;第三次蛻皮后進入第四齡,第四次蛻皮又稱大眠。大眠后就進入第五齡,五齡的蠶寶寶長得極快,體長可達6-7厘米,體重可達蟻蠶重量的1萬倍左右。

                熟蠶:蠶寶寶到了五齡末期,就逐漸體現出老熟的特征:先是排出的糞便由硬變軟,由墨綠色變成葉綠色;食欲減退,食桑量下降;前部消化管空虛,胸部呈透明狀;繼而完全停食,體驅縮短,腹部也趨向透明,蠶體頭胸部昂起,口吐絲縷,左右上下擺動尋找營繭場所,這樣的蠶就稱為熟蠶。

                Newly-hatched silkworms: When just hatched from eggs, their body is brown or russet, tiny, and fuzz, looking like ants, so they are also called ant silkworms. Ant silkworms are about 2 mm long, 0.5 mm wide. After they leave the shells, they begin to eat mulberry leaves 2-3 hours later.

                Newly hatched silkworms-matured silkworms: Silkworm babies eat a lot, therefore, they grow fast with body color gradually becoming weak. But sometimes their appetite gradually wanes and even fast. Vomiting out a small amount of silk, fixing gastropod on rearing bed, raising cephalothorax, resting as if asleep, this period is known as "Dormant Period". Silkworms in this period seem motionless, but their bodies are preparing for peeling. It’s also called “Aging”, showing the silkworms are in a certain development stage. The first aging is when ant silkworms peel for the first time; They are in the second aging period when they are awake; It’s the third aging period when they peel again; When they peel for the third time, whey enter into the fourth period, the fourth molting is also called “Long sleep”; Just after the long sleep, it’s the fifth aging period. Silkworms grow very fast in this period, their body can be up to 6-7 cm long, weighing about 10000 times heavier than the newly-hatched silkworms.

                Matured silkworms: Silkworms gradually reflect the aging characteristics when they are in the fifth period: Firstly, their shit turn from soft to shit and from dark green to green; Then they lose the appetite and eat less; Their anterior digestive tube is empty and turn transparent; Afterwards, they completely stop eating with a shorter body and transparent abdomen. Silkworm raise their cephalothorax, spinning silk, bobbing around looking for cocoon camp sites. Such silkworms are called matured silkworms. 

                3.成蟲期結繭:

                Cocoon when matured

                人們把熟蠶放在特制的容器中或蔟器上,蠶便吐絲結繭了。 結繭可分為四個過程:1、熟蠶先將絲吐出,粘結在蔟器上,再吐絲連接周圍蔟枝,形成結繭支架,即結繭網。繭網不具備繭形,只是一些松軟凌亂的繭絲層,以作為結繭的支架。2、蠶結制繭網后,繼續吐出凌亂的絲圈,加厚繭網內層,然后以S型方式吐絲,開始出現繭的輪廓,叫做結繭衣。繭衣的絲纖維細而脆,排列極不規則,絲膠含量也多。 3、繭衣形成后,繭腔逐漸變小,蠶體前后兩端向背方彎曲,成“C”字型,蠶繼續吐出繭絲,吐絲方式由S形改變成∞形,這就開始了結繭層的過程。4、當蠶由于大量吐絲,體軀大大縮小時,頭胸部擺動速度減慢,而且沒有一定的節奏,吐絲開始顯得凌亂,形成松散柔軟的繭絲層,稱為蛹襯。

                After people put matured silkworms in a special container or straw cocooning frame, silkworms begin to spin cocoons. Cocoons can be divided into four processes: 1. Spiting out silk first, binding on the straw cocooning frame machine, then spinning again to connect the branches around straw cocooning frame, forming the bracket of cocoon, that is making cocoon nets. Cocoon nets does not have cocoon shape, they are just some soft and messy cocoon layer as the framework of the cocoon. 2. After silkworm finish making cocoon nets, they continue to spit out messy silk circles, thicken the endotheciums of cocoon nets and then spin silk out in S way. Finally, the outline of cocoon appear, called cocoon garments. 

                The silk fiber of cocoon garments is thin, brittle, highly irregular and contain much sericin. 3. Cocoon cavity, after the formation of cocoon, gradually become smaller. Silkworms bend both their hands and tails to the direction of their back into a "C" word and then continue to spit silk from S way to ∞, which starts the process of cocoon layer. 4. Their bodies are greatly smaller because the silkworms spin a large quantity of silk. Their cephalothorax’s swing speed slow down without certain rhythm. The spinning is starting to be messy, forming a loose and soft cocoon layer, which is called tetelettes.

                4.蠶蛹-蠶蛾

                silkworm chrysalises-Silkworm moths

                蠶蛹:蠶上蔟結繭后經過4天左右,就會變成蛹。蠶蛹的體形像一個紡棰,分頭、胸、腹三個體段。頭部很小,長有復眼和觸角;胸部長有胸足和翅;鼓鼓的腹部長有9個體節。專業工作者能夠從蠶蛹腹部的線紋和褐色小點來判別雌雄。蠶剛化蛹時,體色是淡黃色的,蛹體嫩軟,漸漸地就會變成黃色、黃褐色或褐色,蛹皮也硬起來了。經過大約12到15天,當蛹體又開始變軟,蛹皮有點起皺并呈土褐色時,它就將變成蛾了。

                蠶蛾(成蟲):蠶蛾的形狀像蝴蝶,全身披著白色鱗毛,但由于兩對翅較小,已失去飛翔能力。蠶蛾的頭部呈小球狀, 長有鼓起的復眼和觸角;胸部長有三對胸足及兩對翅;腹部已無腹足,末端體節演化為外生殖器。雌蛾體大,爬動慢;雄蛾體小,爬動較快,翅膀飛快地振動,尋找著配偶。一般交尾3-4小時后,雌蛾就可產下受精卵。交尾后雄即死亡,雌蛾約花一個晚上可產下約500個卵,然后也會慢慢死去。

                Silkworm chrysalis: 4 days after silkworms make cocoons on straw cocooning frame, they will turn into silkworm chrysalises. The shape of silkworm chrysalises are like spindles with three individual segments: head, chest and abdomen. Their heads are small with compound eye and tentacles; they have thoracic legs and wings on their chest and nine sections on their abdomens. Professionals can tell their gender from observing the abdominal lines and brown dots. When silkworms just become chrysalis, their body is light yellow, tender and soft. Gradually they become yellow, yellowish-brown or brown and their skin is harder. After about 12 to 15 days, their bodies become soft, the skin is a little wrinkle and tan. They will become moths at this time.

                Silkworm moth (matured): The shape of the silkworm moth are like butterflies wearing white scales, but they can’t fly because their two pairs of wings are too small. Silkworm moths’ heads are round and little with summoned compound eyes and tentacles; There are three pairs of thoracic legs and two pairs of wings on their chest and no thoracic leg on their abdomen; The end somites evolve into genitals. The female moths’ bodies are big and creep slowly while the male moths’ body are small, climbing faster and keep looking for their mates. Generally after they mating after 3-4 hours, the female moths can lay eggs. The male moths will die just after the mating while the female moths will die slowly after they lay about 500 eggs for an evening.

                5.挑選優質蠶繭

                Strict Selection 

                柞蠶養殖期過后,專業人員及時采繭,進行甄選,留下最好的蠶繭進行備料。柞蠶絲具有獨特的珠寶光澤,天然華貴,滑爽舒適,手感柔軟而具彈性,是真絲地毯材料的上佳之選。在原有采購挑選的基礎上,工廠質檢員仍要對新進的繭進行篩選,以確保后期用來制作地毯的真絲是百分百質量保障的。挑選時,繭的尺寸、顏色、彈性、氣味等都是質檢員考慮的因素。對于原材料,億絲有自己的一套標準體系,經過層層質量把關,只有質量最為上乘的蠶繭才能最終用來制作手工絲毯。

                After the Tussahs breeding period, professionals will harvest cocoons in time, then select the best cocoons to be raw materials. Tussah silk has unique jewelry burnish, natural and elegant, smooth and comfortable, soft and elastic, which is the best choice to be silk carpet material. On the basis of the original purchasing selection, the factory inspector will still need to filter the new cocoons, to ensure the silk which will be made into carpets is with absolutely quality assurance. During the selection, the cocoons’ size, color, elasticity, smell, etc are all inspectors’ considerations. For raw materials, YISI has its own set of standard system.Through rounds of quality control, only the highest quality cocoons can eventually be used to make handmade silk carpets.

                6.煮絲抽絲

                用最傳統的手工抽絲法,把繭放入清水中取出雜質,經過1-3次清水過濾再放入沸水中煮20分鐘后,進行抽絲,每公斤生繭抽純絲0.3公斤,粗細按所需材料決定。

                Using the most traditional manual silk reeling method, put the cocoon into clean water to remove impurities and then again use clean water to filter for 1-3 times. After the filtration, put them into boiling water for 20 minutes, then begin to reel off silk from cocoons. Raw cocoon of one kilogram can be reeled off 0.3kg silk, the thickness depends on the materials needed. 

                7.拼絲系絲

                真絲的加工比較復雜,首先將分股的真絲打開,放在5個以上手工拼絲機上進行合并,粗細按所需道數而定,多股并為一股,而后進行染煉。

                The silk processing is very complex, open the strands of silk at first, put it on more than five manual spelling silk machines to merge, the thickness depends on the lines needed, several strands become one strand at last. And then they are prepared to dye.